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“Who will Tell our History”

The Incredible True Story of the Warsaw Ghetto Archives

Once describing the optimistic nature of the Jews, Golda Meir said:

“you know, if G-d said that he was bringing another flood to cover the Earth, all the other

nations would begin to wail, tear out their hair, and prepare for the destruction that was sure

to follow. But not the Jews” she said. “The Jews would begin to wonder just how hard life will

be living under water?”

Golda was, of course, right about us. This optimism, that is part of our DNA, is never more

apparent than in a new documentary about the Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto called, “Who Will

Write Our History.” On the eve of the destruction of European Jewry and the liquidation of the

Warsaw ghetto, many Jews in the ghetto although facing extermination, worked feverishly to

write down their history, sure that a future generation would be around to read it.

Most anyone who has studied even a little about the holocaust has heard about the Warsaw

Ghetto uprising. About 40,000 Jews, who avoided the daily deportations that claimed the lives

of 400,000 of their fellow Jews, decided to revolt. We know that this heroic uprising lasted 33

days, 3 weeks longer than the resistance by the entire Polish army to the German invaders.

The Germans, proud of their handling of the “Jewish Question” brought film crews to document

the Jews living in Warsaw. They too wanted historical evidence showing the Jews as dirty, lice-

riddled and depraved sub-humans. For their own reasons they too were interested in writing

history. Had they won and exterminated the Jews, what would future generations know?

What really happened in the ghetto on a day- to-day basis? What was life like under the

domination of the German Nazis? The burning down of the synagogues, the humiliations of

Jews by shaving off their beards, forcing well-dressed Jewish women to remove their

undergarments to scrub the sidewalks and forcing them to put the dirty garments on again. The

food lines, the homeless sleeping in the streets, the hungry foraging among the garbage. These

scenes were filmed by the Nazis.

Emmanuel Ringelblum, a well-known scholar and leading Jewish historian living in Warsaw, was

just as determined to document the Nazi treatment of his fellow Jews. He realized that he was

on the threshold of history and that history needed to be documented. He was determined not

to allow the Nazi’s to write the history of the Jews of Warsaw. Ringelblum began to write daily

accounts of life under the Germans into his diary. He too was documenting, but from the Jewish

perspective. Ringelblum expanded his activities to include over 60 writers who were chronicling

the daily events.

Now, a new documentary film called Who will write our History? answers the question its title

raises about the monumental effort by Ringelblum and his fellow collaborators to preserve

their history for us, in the future generations.

It was 1940, the Germans occupied Poland and immediately sealed over 450,000 Jews

into the Warsaw Ghetto. Kept behind a tall wall and surrounded by Germans patrolling with

dogs and machine guns, the Jews were stripped of most of their possessions including food and

clothing and were living a destitute existence. Because their own children were starving at

home, they turned a blind eye when they passed starving children, dying in the street.

Previously affluent, they were now barefoot and begging on the street. Their plight was

reminiscent to the one described by Jeremiah after the destruction of the Temple. As the

Germans delighted in filming the Jews at their worst, Ringelblum sprang into action.

He gathered together over 60 writers, journalists, and economists, representing a cross section

of Jews living in Warsaw. They all shared a deep commitment to resist the Nazi lies and

propaganda by documenting the real, daily conditions. Not knowing if they would survive, their

commitment was to preserve the truth about the Holocaust even if there would be no

survivors. They wrote to us in the future generation. Knowing that death awaited them if

caught, they operated in secret. As most of their meetings occurred on Sabbath afternoons, the

group adopted the code name “Oyneg Shabbes” (A delight for the Sabbath).

“Who will write our History?” shows original footage shot by the Nazis, while we hear the

words of the “Oyneg Shabbes” writers.

Ringelblum encouraged them to write diaries, essays, poems, jokes and songs depicting life

under Nazi rule. Some Interviewed eye witnesses and documented their tales of Nazi atrocities,

and mass murder. As the months ticked by, with fewer and fewer Jews remaining alive, the

Oyneg Shabbes group realized that documentation was no longer enough. They developed

contacts with the Polish underground and smuggled their reports of Nazi atrocities out, under

the walls of the ghetto. They were determined to get their story into the hands of the allies.

And it was due to their heroic efforts that the allies first learned of the reality of the Final


By 1943, only about 40,000 Jews were left; deportation for all seemed inevitable. Members of

Oyneg Shabbes also were dwindling. Mordechai Anielewicz, the commander of the

underground army, led the remaining, desperate Jews in a revolt. Using pistols and homemade

grenades, they attacked the Germans, disrupting momentarily, the deportation process. The

Nazi’s, desperate to suppress the first large-scale resistance to their reign of terror, retaliated

with full force. Crack troops of the Wehrmacht supported by tanks with flame throwers

attacked the ghetto. The battle raged on for 33 days, until the ghetto was burned down and

reduced to rubble.

With the ghetto burning and the walls crumbling all around, Ringelblum and his Oyneg Shabbes

comrades buried hundreds of thousands of pages of documentation, in steel canisters under

the burning buildings. Their optimistic hope was that their writings survive, even if they do not.

They did not survive. Ringelblum managed to escape from the burning ghetto and was hiding

for 9 months, all the time writing and shaping up the archives. Ultimately, his hiding place was

betrayed by a Pole and he, his wife and child were shot to death by the Germans. Out of the

more than 60 members of Oyneg Shabbes, only three survived the war!

1946, with the war over, Rachel Auerbach, one of the survivors of the original group (whose

narrative we hear throughout the documentary) used aerial photographs of the pre-war ghetto

to find the location of the buildings under which the metal cannisters were buried. After much

digging, 10 original cannisters were unearthed. Several years later additional boxes of Oyneg

Shabbes documentation was found, creating a large archive. A third set of cannisters was never

discovered. In all, 60,000 pages of the original Oyneg Shabbes documents were found.

“Who will Write our History” is a powerful film, based on the critically acclaimed book by the

same title, written by historian Samuel Kassow. Kassow collated the original archives and

brought them alive in his excellent book. The documentary uses actual World War II footage,

shot by the Nazis and recovered by the Allies. Academy Award winner Adrian Brody reads the

words of Emanuel Ringelblum, describing his fears and hopes written 75 years ago, directed to

us, today. It almost feels like we too are in Warsaw in 1942 as we hear the wrods. We share the

terror of discovery, as the Oyneg Shabbes members and their families hide in their bunkers.

Their haunting words reveal their hopes and fears, that we, in a future generation may

someday hear them. With the daily deportations’, members of Oyneg Shabbes are also caught

in the dragnet. As the actors read the words of Oyneg Shabbes contributors, we listen to their

fears that perhaps the pages will be destroyed, and no one will ever know their suffering and


The Oyneg Shabbes archives refutes all who deny the Holocaust and the capacity of man to

inflict such horrors on another. Their testimony brings us face to face with a powerful truth

about the German hatred for Jews. Physical extermination was not sufficient for them. They

raced to invent greater and better methods of torture and humiliation, before the murder.

The Nazis attempted to show the Jews as a depraved, filthy and lice riddled race while the

Oyneg Shabbes chronicles explain the step-by-step methods used by the Nazis to create these

conditions. Emmanuel Ringelblum and his Oyneg Shabbes collaborators point an accusing finger

from their fiery graves, as they shout their eye-witness testimony for everyone to hear.

The archives capture their humor, longing, hunger, and determination to retain their humanity

in the face of unspeakable hardships. Ultimately, through their voices, actions, and real-time

experiences, Who Will Write Our History defeats those who wish to decrease the culpability of

the perpetrators of one of Humanities gravest sins in favor of those who chose to stand up,

fight back and, as one Oyneg Shabes member writes, “scream the truth to the world.”

“Who Will Write Our History” was produced by a range of great talents, including Nancy

Spielberg and Roberta Grossman. Featuring the voices of three-time Academy Award nominee

Joan Allen and Academy Award winner Brody, the documentary is slated for world wide

screening on January 27, the UN designated International Holocaust Remembrance Day. It’s a

must see for anyone who wants to know the real truth about the heroes of the Warsaw Ghetto.

Emanuel Ringelblum


Emanuel Ringelblum was born on 21 November 1900 in Buchach in East Galicia. His family

escaped to Nowy Sacz where he graduated from gymnazium (HS). In 1920, he applied to

study medicine but was rejected due to the prevailing numerus clausus rule, meant to reduce

the numbers of Jews studying certain professions. In 1927 he received his PhD in Jewish history,

focusing on the history of Jews in Poland. One year later, he began to teach in a Jewish

gymnasium for girls. In 1938, he left his teaching post and decided to dedicate himself to social


A prolific writer, he wrote numerous articles for the “Encyclopedia Judaica” in German

as well as many journals in Poland.

In 1939, he participated in the 21 st Zionist Congress in Geneva, and as the war broke out decided

to return to occupied Poland. Immediately upon arriving back in Warsaw, Emanuel Ringelblum

began to collect accounts of the events he witnessed and which – of what he was aware from

the start – had no precedent in history. He wrote his observations down in a diary -like form.

Realizing that the monumental task was beyond the scope of one man, he collected additional

chroniclers from various social backgrounds. Each one in the secret endeavor was assigned a

task to write from a specific perspective.

Ringelblum, his wife and son Uri, were discovered hiding in a bunker and shot by the Germans,

but not before he managed to smuggle out many more of his writings.

Israel Gutman, Jewish historian, a resistance activist in the Warsaw Ghetto, wrote

that “Ringelblum for his whole life had been an optimist who believed in the human

being”. He was affected by the suffering of others and tried to help them, even if he was

in a hopeless situation himself.

“His greatest dream, and his greatest fear is: whether his life’s work, the Archive, a common

achievement of people he lived among, will reach the free world.”

Milk cans and cannisters used to hide the archives

Among the first metal cannisters found with the Ringelblum Archives 1946

Unearthing the archives among the rubble of the former Warsaw Ghetto

The streets of the Warsaw ghetto burning with Jews being rounded up by the Germans

Jewish writers and historians with Ringelblum (far left) in 1930

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